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The desire to understand, define, and explain the essence of leadership has interested researchers and scholars for most of the twentieth century. In their efforts to find an "accurate and precise" definition of leadership, thousands of studies have been published in the last several decades alone. Most of these explanations have focused on a single person and his or her personal qualities and skills. Social scientists have tried to identify what abilities, traits, behaviors, sources of power or aspects of the situation determine how effective a leader will be able to influence others.
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The words educational and technology in the term educational technology have the general meaning. Educational technology is not restricted to the education of children, nor to the use of high technology. The particular case of the meaningful use of high-technology to enhance learning in K-12 classrooms and higher education is known as technology integration.
- Theories and practices
- Educational Technology and the Humanities
- Societies and journals
- Instructional technology
- Instructional theory
- Learning theory (education)
- Educational psychology
- Educational research
- Human Performance Technology
- Instructional Design
Januszewski, Alan (2001). Educational Technology: The Development of a Concept. Libraries Unlimited. ISBN 1-56308-749-9.
Kumar, K L (1997). Educational Technology: A Practical Textbook for Students, Teachers, Professionals and Trainers. New Delhi
Soni, S K (2004). An Information Resource on Educational Technology for:Technical & Vocational Education and TRaining (TVET).
Education Technology for TVET, a comprehensive blog for education technology for professional higher education
Coming soon ...
The schoolzone.co.uk Guide to Digital Resources, - A full-colour guide with reviews of around 500 selected and recommended products, categorised by subject area, albeit specific to the UK school system.
Basic Concepts of Planning
Planning in organizations and public policy is both the organizational process of creating and maintaining a plan; and the psychological process of thinking about the activities required to create a desired goal on some scale. As such, it is a fundamental property of intelligent behavior. This thought process is essential to the creation and refinement of a plan, or integration of it with other plans, that is, it combines forecasting of developments with the preparation of scenarios of how to react to them. An important, albeit often ignored aspect of planning, is the relationship it holds with forecasting. Forecasting can be described as predicting what the future will look like, whereas planning predicts what the future should look like.
The term is also used to describe the formal procedures used in such an endeavor, such as the creation of documents, diagrams, or meetings to discuss the important issues to be addressed, the objectives to be met, and the strategy to be followed. Beyond this, planning has a different meaning depending on the political or economic context in which it is used.
Two attitudes to planning need to be held in tension: on the one hand we need to be prepared for what may lie ahead, which may mean contingencies and flexible processes. On the other hand, our future is shaped by consequences of our own planning and actions.
- Types of plans or planning
- Objectives and policies
- Planning basics
- Automated planning and scheduling
- Balanced scorecard
- Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR) (Supply chain management)
- Futures Studies
- District Planning in Kerala
- Peoples Planning in Kerala
- Planning fallacy
- Project management
- Time management
- Wicked problems
Instructional Design (also called Instructional Systems Design (ISD)) is the practice of creating "instructional experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing." The process consists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. Ideally the process is informed by pedagogically (process of teaching) and andragogically (adult learning) tested theories of learning and may take place in student-only, teacher-led or community-based settings. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. There are many instructional design models but many are based on the ADDIE model with the five phases: 1) analysis, 2) design, 3) development, 4) implementation, and 5) evaluation. As a field, instructional design is historically and traditionally rooted in cognitive and behavioral psychology, though recently Constructivism (learning theory) has influenced thinking in the field.
- History of the System Approach to Instructional Design
- 1940’s - The Origins of Instructional Design, World War II
- 1946 – Edgar Dale’s Cone of Experience
- Mid-1950s through mid-1960s - The Programmed Instruction Movement
- Early 1960s - The Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement
- 1965 - Domains of Learning, Events of Instruction, and Hierarchical Analysis
- 1967 - Formative Evaluation
- The 1970s - Growing of Interest in the Systems Approach
- The 1980s - Introduction of Personal Computers into the Design Process
- The 1990s - A Growing Interest in Constructivist Theory and the Importance of Performance
- The 2000s - Rise of the Internet and Online Learning
- 2010 and forward
- Instructional Media History
- Overview of Gagné’s instructional theory
- ADDIE process
- Rapid prototyping
- Dick and Carey
- Instructional Development Learning System (IDLS)
- Other instructional design models
- Motivational Design
- The ARCS Model of Motivational Design
- Motivating Opportunities Model
- Influential researchers and theorists
- Instructional Design – An overview of Instructional Design
- ISD Handbook
- Edutech wiki: Instructional design model 
- Debby Kalk, Real World Instructional Design Interview
Educational Administration is a discipline within the study of education that examines the administrative theory and practice of education in general and educational institutions and educators in particular. The field ideally distinguishes itself from administration and management through its adherence to guiding principles of educational philosophy.
An academic administration is a branch of university or college employees responsible for the maintenance and supervision of the institution and separate from the faculty or academics, although some personnel may have joint responsibilities. Some type of separate administrative structure exists at almost all academic institutions, as fewer and fewer schools are governed by employees who are also involved in academic or scholarly work. Many administrators are academics with advanced degrees who no longer teach or conduct research actively.
- Key administrative responsibilities (and thus administrative units) in academic institutions include:
- Supervision of academic affairs such as hiring, promotion, tenure, and evaluation (with faculty input where appropriate);
- Maintenance of official records (typically supervised by a registrar in the US
- Maintenance and audit of financial flows and records;
- Oversight of student life and activities, such as religious or cultural groups, career centers and public service centers.
- Library and archive management (by librarians and archivists);
- Maintenance and construction of campus buildings (the physical plant);
- Maintenance of the campus grounds;
- Safety and security of people and property on the campus (often organized as an office of public safety or campus police);
- Supervision and support of campus computers and network (information technology).
- Fundraising from private individuals and foundations ("development" or "advancement")
- Research administration (including grants and contract administration
- Public affairs (including relations with the media, the community, and local, state, and federal governments)
- United States
In education, instructional technology is "the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning," according to the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) Definitions and Terminology Committee. Instructional technology is often referred to as a part of educational technology but the use of these terms has changed over the years. Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources." While instructional technology covers the processes and systems of learning and instruction, educational technology includes other systems used in the process of developing human capability.
Areas of interest and growth:
- Instructional design
- Instructional theory
- Interactive geometry software
- Educational technology
- Educational animation
- Content management system
- Distance learning
- Technology integration
Standards and specifications:
Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. The term can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content forms) or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms. The term is used in contrast to media which only use traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, and interactivity content forms.
Multimedia is usually recorded and played, displayed or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance. Multimedia (as an adjective) also describes electronic media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art; by including audio, for example, it has a broader scope. The term "rich media" is synonymous for interactive multimedia. Hypermedia can be considered one particular multimedia application.
- Categorization of multimedia
- Major characteristics of multimedia
- Structuring information in a multimedia form
Computer networking is the engineering discipline concerned with the communication between computer systems or devices. A computer network is any set of computers or devices connected to each other with the ability to exchange data. Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications, computer science, information technology and/or computer engineering since it relies heavily upon the theoretical and practical application of these scientific and engineering disciplines. The three types of networks are: the Internet, the intranet, and the extranet.
Examples of different network methods are:
All networks are interconnected to allow communication with a variety of different kinds of media, including twisted-pair copper wire cable, coaxial cable, optical fiber, power lines and various wireless technologies. The devices can be separated by a few meters (e.g. via Bluetooth) or nearly unlimited distances (e.g. via the interconnections of the Internet). Networking, routers, routing protocols, and networking over the public Internet have their specifications defined in documents called RFCs.
- Views of networks
- History of computer networks
- Networking methods
- Network topology
- Data transmission
- Digital communications
- Communication network
- Network architecture
- Network simulation
Distance education, or distance learning, is a field of education that focuses on the pedagogy/andragogy, technology, and instructional systems design that are effectively incorporated in delivering education to students who are not physically "on site" to receive their education. Instead, teachers and students may communicate asynchronously (at times of their own choosing) by exchanging printed or electronic media, or through technology that allows them to communicate in real time (synchronously). Distance education courses that require a physical on-site presence for any reason including the taking of examinations is considered to be a hybrid or blended course or program.
- Computer-assisted language learning Computer-assisted language learning
- Diploma mill
- Educational technology (Related: Learning management system)
- Efficient learning method
- Direct Online Learning
- European Association of Distance Teaching Universities
- Online learning (aka E-Learning) (Related: E-learning glossary)
- Virtual Campus
- Newsweek Distance Learning
- The Distance Education and Training Council
- European Association of Distance Teaching Universities
- Accredited list of online colleges
- United States Distance Learning Association (USDLA)
- Directory of all courses offered by Canadian Distance Education
- Australian Distance learning
- Northwestern University - Center for Talent Development - Gifted LearningLinks
- Distance learning at the Open Directory Project
- The Journal of Distance Education / Revue de l'Éducation à Distance, scholarly journal
- "Radio in education" full text books and articles online; from 1930s and 1940s
- The Center on Accessible Distance Learning (AccessDL), DO-IT Center, University of Washington
Distance], scholarly journal
A personal computer is made up of multiple physical components of computer hardware, upon which can be installed an operating system and a multitude of software to perform the operator's desired functions.
The motherboard is the main component inside the case. It is a large rectangular board with integrated circuitry that connects the rest of
Components directly attached to the motherboard include:
The central processing unit ( CPU) performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function, and is sometimes referred to as the "brain" of the computer. It is usually cooled by a heat sink and fan.
The chip set mediates communication between the CPU and the other components of the system, including main memory.
RAM (Random Access Memory) stores all running processes (applications) and the current running OS.
Internal Buses connect the CPU to various internal components and
Hardware of a modern Personal Computer
External Bus Controllers support ports for external peripherals. These ports may be controlled directly by the south bridge I/O controller or based on expansion cards attached to the motherboard through the PCI bus.
Computer software, or just software is a general term primarily used for digitally stored data such as computer programs and other kinds of information read and written by computers. Today, this includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes and records. The term was coined in order to contrast to the old term hardware (meaning physical devices); in contrast to hardware, software is intangible, meaning it "cannot be touched". Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only.
- Application software, such as word processors which perform productive tasks for users.
- Firmware, which is software programmed resident to electrically programmable memory devices on board mainboards
- Middleware, which controls and co-ordinates distributed systems.
- System software such as operating systems, which govern computing resources and provide convenience for users.
- Software testing is a domain independent of development and programming.
- Testware, which is an umbrella term or container term for all utilities and application software
- software package but not necessarily may optionally contribute to operational purposes.
- Video games (except the hardware part)
- Types of software
- Software topics
- Design and implementation
- Industry and organizations
Personal development includes activities that improve awareness and identity, develop talents and potential, build human capital and facilitates employability, enhance quality of life and contribute to the realization of dreams and aspirations. The concept is not limited to self-help but includes formal and informal activities for developing others, in roles such as teacher, guide, counsellor, manager, coach, or mentor. Finally, as personal development takes place in the context of institutions, it refers to the methods, programs, tools, techniques, and assessment systems that support human development at the individual level in organizations.
At the level of the individual, personal development includes the following activities:
- improving self-awareness
- improving self-knowledge
- building or renewing identity
- developing strengths or talents
- improving wealth
- spiritual development
- identifying or improving potential
- building employability or human capital
- enhancing lifestyle or the quality of life
- improving health
- fulfilling aspirations
- initiating a life enterprise or personal autonomy
- defining and executing personal development plans
- improving social abilities
The concept covers a wider field than self-development or self-help: personal development also includes developing other people. This may take place through roles such as those of a teacher or mentor, either through a personal competency (such as the skill of certain managers in developing the potential of employees) or a professional service (such as providing training, assessment or coaching).
Beyond improving oneself and developing others, personal development is a field of practice and research. As a field of practice it includes personal development methods, learning programs, assessment systems, tools and techniques. As a field of research, personal development topics increasingly appear in scientific journals, higher education reviews, management journals and business books.
Any sort of development — whether economic, political, biological, organizational or personal — requires a framework if one wishes to know whether change has actually occurred. In the case of personal development, an individual often functions as the primary judge of improvement, but validation of objective improvement requires assessment using standard criteria. Personal development frameworks may include goals or benchmarks that define the end-points, strategies or plans for reaching goals, measurement and assessment of progress, levels or stages that define milestones along a development path, and a feedback system to provide information on changes.
- The personal development industry
- Holland Codes
- Know thyself
- Life planning
- Training and development
- Human Potential Movement
Facility management is an interdisciplinary field primarily devoted to the maintenance and care of commercial or institutional buildings, such as hotels, resorts, schools, office complexes, sports arenas or convention centers. Duties may include the care of air conditioning, electric power, plumbing and lighting systems; cleaning; decoration; groundskeeping and security. Some or all of these duties can be assisted by computer programs. These duties can be thought of as non-core or support services, because they are not the primary business (taken in the broadest sense of the word) of the owner organization.
It is the role of the facility management function (whether it is a separate department or small team) to coordinate and oversee the safe, secure, and environmentally-sound operations and maintenance of these assets in a cost effective manner aimed at long-term preservation of the asset value, and also other janitorial duties such as making sure the environment is properly cleaned and sanitized for its tenants.
In those cases where the operation of the facility directly involves the occupants and/or customers of the owner organization, the satisfactory delivery of facility-related services to these people will be an important consideration too; hence, the term "end-user satisfaction" is often used both as a goal and a measure of performance.
The term facility management is similar to property management although not exactly the same. While both manage the day to day operations of a facility the property such as cleaning, maintenance and security, similar to Janitors, one must not confuse it with such a title. The property manager has an expanded role which includes leasing and marketing activities whereas the facility manager role focuses on existing tenants who usually are owner occupants. An important feature of facility management is that it takes account of human needs of its tenants in the use of buildings and other constructed facilities.
These softer factors complement the harder factors associated with the maintenance and care of engineering services installations.
According to Atkin and Brooks, an important concept in the facility management field is that of outsourcing, where the owner enters into an arrangement with external organizations to provide one or more services in preference to their being provided through internal arrangements.
The reasons for this action can vary, including lack of in-house resources, lack of expertise and pressure to reduce costs.
Unfortunately, confusion can exist because of the close association that facility management has with outsourcing. The two concepts are not synonymous; rather, outsourcing is one means for providing facility-related services to the owner organization.
Facility management is performed during the operational phase of a building’s life cycle, which normally extends over many decades. As such, it will represent a continuous process of service provision to support the owner’s core business and one where improvement will be sought on a continuous basis. It is essential that decision-making in the preceding design and construction phases is therefore properly informed about operational requirements if the facility is to provide optimal support to the owner’s business. In this connection, facility management can be seen as an integral part of a coordinated and controlled process of design, engineering, construction and operations. Where a facility is provided on a turnkey basis, for example design-build-finance-operate (DBFO), the consortium responsible for the delivery of the physical asset and then operating the core service will need to understand implicitly the day-to-day demands in managing that facility. Under such arrangements – typically public-private partnerships (PPP) – owner-operators must fully integrate operational thinking into early design decision-making.
A major challenge facing facility owners is reducing demand for energy for economic reasons, but also because energy consumption goes hand-in-hand with carbon emissions. Reducing energy during the operational phase of a facility's life similarly reduces carbon emissions. When considering that 30-40% of a country's total carbon emissions is attributable to buildings and other constructed facilities, it is clear that operations and, hence, facility management have a significant role to play.
- Technology of building automation
- Building Information Modeling
- Computer aided facility management (CAFM)
- Computerized Maintenance Management System
- Building automation
- Cleaning or Cleanliness
A Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) is a software system designed to facilitate teachers in the management of educational courses for their students, especially by helping teachers and learners with course administration. The system can often track the learners' progress, which can be monitored by both teachers and learners. While often thought of as primarily tools for distance education, they are most often used to supplement the face-to-face classroom.
These systems usually run on servers, to serve the course to students as internet pages.
Components of these systems usually include templates for content pages, discussion forums, chat, quizzes and exercises such as multiple-choice, true/false and one-word-answer. Teachers fill in these templates and then release them for learners to use. New features in these systems include blogs and RSS. Services generally provided include access control, provision of e-learning content, communication tools, and administration of the user groups.
- Similar terms
A VLE should make it possible for a course designer to present to students, through a single, consistent, and intuitive interface, all the components required for a course of education or training. Although logically it is not a requirement, in practice VLEs always make extensive use of computers and the Internet.
A VLE should implement all the following elements:
1. The syllabus for the course
2. Administrative information including the location of sessions, details of pre-requisites and co-requisites, credit information, and how to get help
3. A noticeboard for up-to-date course information
4. Student registration and tracking facilities, if necessary with payment options
5. Basic teaching materials. These may be the complete content of the course, if the VLE is being used in a distance learning context, or copies of visual aids used in lectures or other classes where it is being used to support a campus-based course.
6. Additional resources, including reading materials, and links to outside resources in libraries and on the Internet.
7. Self-assessment quizzes which can be scored automatically
8. Formal assessment procedures
10. Differential access rights for instructors and students
11. Production of documentation and statistics on the course in the format required for institutional administration and quality control
12. All these facilities should be capable of being hyperlinked together
13. Easy authoring tools for creating the necessary documents including the insertion of hyperlinks - though it is acceptable (arguably, preferable) for the VLE to be designed so that standard word processors or other office software can be used for authoring.
In addition, the VLE should be capable of supporting numerous courses, so that students and instructors in a given institution (and, indeed, across institutions) experience a consistent interface when moving from one course to another.
- History of virtual learning environments
- Content management framework
- Computer-assisted language learning
- Advanced Distributed Learning
- LMS Options and Comparisons Wiki based comparison of major VLEs
- EduTools: COURSE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: Compare Products
- LMSNews Reviews of Open Source LMS
- Its Learning Its Learning Website
In general usage, a financial plan can be a budget, a plan for spending and saving future income. This plan allocates future income to various types of expenses, such as rent or utilities, and also reserves some income for short-term and long-term savings. A financial plan can also be an investment plan, which allocates savings to various assets or projects expected to produce future income, such as a new business or product line, shares in an existing business, or real estate.
In business, a financial plan can refer to the three primary financial statements (balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement) created within a business plan. Financial forecast or financial plan can also refer to an annual projection of income and expenses for a company, division or department. A financial plan can also be an estimation of cash needs and a decision on how to raise the cash, such as through borrowing or issuing additional shares in a company.
While a financial plan refers to estimating future income, expenses and assets, a financing plan or finance plan usually refers to the means by which cash will be acquired to cover future expenses, for instance through earning, borrowing or using saved cash.
- Capital budgeting
- Financial planning (business)
- Optimism bias
- Personal budget
- Reference class forecasting
- Prospective Analysis: Guidelines for Forecasting Financial Statements, Ignacio Velez-Pareja, Joseph Tham , 2008
- To Plug or Not to Plug, that is the Question: No Plugs, No Circularity: A Better Way to Forecast Financial Statements
- A Step by Step Guide to Construct a Financial Model Without Plugs and Without Circularity for Valuation Purposes
- Long-Term Financial Statements Forecasting: Reinvesting Retained Earnings, Sergei Cheremushkin, 2008
0131194712 (Paperback) Jul 2005, 384 pages
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Current Issues in Educational Technology
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- Education Leadership
- The Education Portal
- Two Million Minutes: Comparison of school education standards between Indian, China and USA
WebCT (Web Course Tools) is an online commercial virtual learning environment system which is sold to colleges and other institutions and is used extensively in many campuses for e-learning. Instructors can add to their WebCT courses tools such as discussion boards, mail systems and live chat, along with content such as documents and web pages.