Education, Staff Development and Teacher Training Centre
Instructional Theory is a discipline that focuses on how to structure material for promoting the education of humans, particularly youth. Originating in the United States in the late 1970s, instructional theory is typically divided into two categories: the cognitive and behaviourist schools of thought. Instructional theory was spawned off the 1956 work of Benjamin Bloom, a University of Chicago professor, and the results of his Taxonomy of Education Objectives — one of the first modern codifications of the learning process. One of the first instructional theorists was Robert M. Gagne, who in 1965 published Conditions of Learning for the Florida State University's Department of Educational Research.
Renowned psychologist B. F. Skinner's theories of behaviour were highly influential on instructional theorists because their hypotheses can be tested fairly easily with the scientific process. It is more difficult to demonstrate cognitive learning results. Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed (ISBN 0-8264-1276-9) — first published in English in 1968 — had a broad influence over a generation of American educators with his critique of various "banking" models of education and analysis of the teacher-student relationship.
In the context of e-learning, a major discussion in instructional theory is the potential of learning objects to structure and deliver content. A stand-alone educational animation is an example of a learning object that can be re-used as the basis for different learning experiences. There are currently many groups trying to set standards for the development and implementation of learning objects. At the forefront of the standards groups is the Department of Defence's Advanced Distributed Learning initiative with its SCORM standards. SCORM stands for Shareable Content Object Reference Model.
- Learning theory
- Instructional Technology
- Educational Technology
- Teaching Method
- Training Within Industry was developed during WWII and is still in use around the world
Higher Education is education provided by universities, vocational universities (community colleges, liberal arts colleges, and technical colleges, etc.) and other collegial institutions that award academic degrees, such as career colleges.
- As employers
- By region
- Adult education
- Community college
- Further education
- Foundation degree
- Lifelong learning
- Education in China
- Education in Egypt
- Education in India
- Education in Malaysia
- Education in Pakistan
- List of academic disciplines
- List of education topics
- Glossary of education-related terms
- Approaches to Learning in Higher Education
- Philosophy of Liberal Education
- Spirituality in Higher Education
- VidyaSoochika - Higher Education Opportunities
- Higher Education Resource Hub
- Encyclopedia of Higher Education in the United States
- How Minority Students Finance Their Higher Education
- Top Ten Universities of US and UK
- Ensuring Quality and Productivity in Higher Education
- Writings on Higher Education Practice from the National University of Singapore
- Reform Initiatives in Higher Education
- Budgeting for Higher Education at the State Level: Enigma, Paradox, and Ritual
- Blue Ribbon Commissions and Higher Education
- Part Time MBA - Balancing Life, Work and School - Article
- American Association of State Colleges and Universities
- American Council on Education
- Higher Education Research Institute
- Association for the Study of Higher Education
- Information about Erasmus/Internship in Europe
- European universities fear "Americanization"
- Higher education finances
Career Management is defined by Ball (1997) as:
Making career choices and decisions the traditional focus of careers interventions. The changed nature of work means that individuals may now have to revisit this process more frequently than in the past.
Managing the organisational career concerns the career management tasks of individuals within the workplace, such as decision-making, life-stage transitions, dealing with stress etc.
Managing 'boundaryless' careers refers to skills needed by workers whose employment is beyond the boundaries of a single organisation, a workstyle common among, for example, artists and designers.
Taking control of one's personal development as employers take less responsibility, employees need to take control of their own development in order to maintain and enhance their employability.
Now that the job-for-life covenant between employer and employee has been superseded by an insecure and uncertain job market, career management has become a necessary survival skill rather than being an activity pursued by Ivy League alumni or people born with a silver spoon in the mouth. Job security is now based on knowledge, skills and added-value rather than length of service or loyalty to an employer. Career management is nothing more than a small investment of time, money and energy to protect the major source of revenue - one's job.
- Curriculum (what to teach and how to organize it),
- Instruction (how to teach the content),
- Evaluation (assessing the extent of learning),
- Management (in and out of the classroom), and
- Self-Improvement (becoming a better teacher).
Learning, as the noun, is the body of knowledge and wisdom (that which one learns); as the verb, it is the process of gaining understanding that leads to the modification of attitudes and behaviours through the acquisition of knowledge, skills and values, through study and experience. Learning induces a persistent, measurable, and specified behavioural change in the learner to formulate a new mental construct or revise a prior mental construct. The learning process leads to long-term changes in behaviour potential. Behaviour potential describes an individual’s possible behaviour in a given situation to achieve a goal. But potential is not enough; if individual learning is not periodically reinforced, it becomes shallower and shallower, and eventually will be lost in that individual.
Education can be defined as the conscious attempt to promote learning in others (but see Education for other definitions.) Traditionally, analysis of this attempt has centred around direct teaching on the part of teachers. In what constitutes a paradigm shift, however, people now note that learning can be promoted in ways that go beyond direct instruction by a teacher - education now centres around creating a viable, productive learning environment, regardless of how teacher-centric that environment might be.
When the term education is combined with entertainment, the term edutainment is coined. Edutainment also called "e-learning" are new methods and practices that enabled learning in faster, more efficient and more entertaining ways. The idea is usually to combine games with learning, using software or interactive courses. There are also blogs on edutainment that keep up with the latest news and updates on software, videos, and lessons that use edutainment as a basis for teaching in a more efficient and faster way. E-learning is more specifically related to "electronic learning." This may or may not be edutainment. Many distance education programs use electronic teaching methodologies (courseware) to facilitate the educational process, these programs will often talk about doing "e-learning."
- Learning - Neuroscience
- Basic learning processes
- Learning methods
- Learning which alternative methods exist
- Learning which shortcuts exist to solve specific problems
- Theories on Learning
- Other dimensions of learning
- Study Guides and Strategies
- Life Learning International magazine about self-directed learning, unschooling and informal learning
- Nurturing Children's Natural Love of Learning - Article by Jan Hunt
- Articles about Natural Learning from Natural Life magazine
- Learning Through World Travel & Cultures
- How To Learn - a spiritual perspective
- Learning With Laptop Computers - Articles on educators using technology in the classroom
- Interview with James Zull, Ph.D.
In psychology and education, Learning Theories are attempts to describe how people learn, thereby helping us understand the inherently complex process of learning. There are basically three main perspectives in learning theories, Behaviourism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism.
Goals of learning are thought to be a key factor influencing the level of a student's intrinsic motivation.
Main axes of Goal Theory
Mastery/Performance Ames (1992). Mastery orientation is described as a student's wish to become proficient in a topic to the best of their ability. The student's sense of satisfaction with the work is not influenced by external performance indicators such as grades. Mastery orientation is associated with deeper engagement with the task and greater perseverance in the face of setbacks. Mastery orientation is thought to increase a student's intrinsic motivation.
Performance orientation is described as a student's wish to achieve highly on external indicators of success, such as grades. The student's sense of satisfaction is highly influenced by their grades, and so it is associated with discouragement in the face of low marks. Performance orientation is also associated with higher states of anxiety. In addition, the desire for high marks increases the temptation to cheat or to engage in shallow rote-learning instead of deep understanding.
Performance orientation is thought to increase a student's intrinsic motivation if they perform well, but to decrease motivation when they perform badly.
Task/ego involvement Nicholls (1990). A student is described as task-involved when they are interested in the task for its own qualities. This is associated with higher intrinsic motivation. Task-involved students are less threatened by failure because their own ego is not tied up in the success of the task.
A student who is ego-involved will be seeking to perform the task to boost their own ego, for the praise that completing the task might attract, or because completing the task confirms their own self-concept (e.g. clever, strong, funny etc...) Ego-involved students can become very anxious or discouraged in the face of failure, because such failure challenges their self-concept.
Approach/avoidance goals Elliot (1997). Not all goals are directed towards approaching a desirable outcome (good grades). Goals can also be directed towards avoiding an undesirable outcome (being grounded for failure).
It is thought that approach goals contribute positively to intrinsic motivation whereas avoidance goals do not.
Behaviourism is an approach to Psychology which purports that learning is the result of Operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is a process both named and investigated by B. F. Skinner. The word ‘operant’ refers to the way in which behaviour ‘operates on the environment’. Briefly, a behaviour may result either in reinforcement, which increases the likelihood of that behaviour occurring again; or punishment,which decreases the likelihood of the same behaviour recurring in the future. The issues surrounding are relatively complex. For example, a reinforcer or a punisher is defined within behaviourism by its effect on behaviour Therefore a punisher is not considered to be punishment if it does not result in the reduction of a particular behaviour As a result, behaviourists are particularly interested in measurable changes in behaviour, which is itself a basic premise of the scientific method.
The word Cognitivism is used in several ways:
In ethics, cognitivism is the philosophical view that ethical sentences express propositions, and hence are capable of being true or false. See Cognitivism (ethics). More generally, cognitivism with respect to any area of discourse is the position that sentences used in that discourse are cognitive, that is, are meaningful and capable of being true or false.
In aesthetics, cognitivism is the view that a work of art is valuable if it contributes to knowledge.
In psychology, cognitivism is the approach to understanding the mind which argues that mental function can be understood as the 'internal' rule-bound manipulation of symbols. See Cognitivism (psychology).
In psychology, anecdotal cognitivism is a methodology for interpreting animal behaviour in terms of mental states, comparable to the mental states of humans. For example, the methodology attempts to determine the cognitive capacity of animals through observation without the necessity that this observation be regulated or controlled as in an experiment; however, behaviour in an experiment can be interpreted using the methodology.
Cognitivism, also known as Cognitive Information Processing (CIP). Cognitivism became the dominant force in psychology in the late-20th century, replacing behaviourism as the most popular paradigm for understanding mental function. Cognitive psychology is not a wholesale refutation of behaviourism, but rather an expansion that accepts that mental states are appropriate to analyse and subject to examination. This was due to the increasing criticism towards the end of the 1950s of behaviourist models. For example, Noam Chomsky argued that language could not be acquired purely through conditioning, and must be at least partly explained by the existence of internal mental states, and that these states can be described and analysed.
- the study of the human mind (not brain).
The term cognition (Latin: cognoscere, "to know") is used in several loosely related ways to refer to a faculty for the human-like processing of information, applying knowledge and changing preferences. Cognition/(cognitive processes) can be natural and artificial, conscious and not conscious; therefore, they are analysed. from different perspectives and in different contexts, in anesthesia, neurology, psychology, philosophy, systemics and computer science. The concept of cognition is closely related to such abstract concepts as mind, reasoning, perception, intelligence, learning, and many others that describe numerous capabilities of human mind and expected properties of artificial or synthetic intelligence. Cognition is an abstract property of advanced living organisms; therefore, it is studied as a direct property of a brain or of an abstract mind on subsymbolic and symbolic levels.
In psychology and in artificial intelligence, it is used to refer to the mental functions, mental processes and states of intelligent entities (humans, human organizations, highly autonomous robots), with a particular focus toward the study of such mental processes as comprehension, inferencing, decision-making, planning and learning (see also cognitive science and cognitivism). Recently, advanced cognitive researchers have been especially focused on the capacities of abstraction, generalization, concretization/specialization and meta-reasoning which descriptions involve such concepts as beliefs, knowledge, desires, preferences and intentions of intelligent individuals/objects/agents/systems.
The term "cognition" is also used in a wider sense to mean the act of knowing or knowledge, and may be interpreted in a social or cultural sense to describe the emergent development of knowledge and concepts within a group that culminate in both thought and action.
is a set of assumptions about the nature of human learning that guide constructivist learning theories and teaching methods of education. Constructivism values developmentally appropriate teacher-supported learning that is initiated and directed by the student.
- Confusion between constructivist and maturationist views
- The nature of the learner
- The role of the instructor
- The nature of the learning process
- Collaboration between learners
- The selection, scope and sequencing of the subject matter
- Constructivist learning intervention
- Pedagogies based on constructivism
- Criticism of Educational Constructivism
- Social constructivism
- Computer programming and science
- A journey into Constructivism by Martin Dougiamas, 1998-11.
- Cognitively Guided Instruction reviewed on the Promising Practices Network
-  www.constructivism.com
Informal theories of education deal with more practical breakdown of the learning process. One of these deals with whether learning should take place as a building of concepts toward an overall idea, or the understanding of the overall idea with the details filled in later. Modern thinkers favour the latter.
Other concerns are the origins of the drive for learning. To this end, many have split off from the mainstream holding that learning is a primarily self taught thing, and that the ideal learning situation is one that is self taught. According to this dogma, learning at its basic level is all self taught, and class rooms should be eliminated since they do not fit the perfect model of self learning.
Click on subject titles for further information
About accelerating the learning process
- Spaced repetition
- incremental reading
- About the mechanisms of memory and learning:
- Neural networks in the brain
- Sleep and learning
- Latent learning
- Memory consolidation
- Short-term memory versus working memory
- Long-term memory
- Declarative memory versus procedural memory
- the Cerebellum and Motor learning
- Creating Learning Centred Classrooms. What Does Learning Theory Have To Say? ERIC Digest.
- How People Learn (and What Technology Might Have To Do with It). ERIC Digest.
- Critical-learning wiki
- Applied Constructivism
- About Learning 12 Learning Theories Described
- Theory Into Practice (TIP) database brief summaries of 50 major theories of learning and instruction
- Theory of Affirmation Teaching
- Folk knowledge and academic learning. In B. J. Ellis & D. F. Bjorklund (Eds.), Origins of the social mind (pp. 493-519). New York: Guilford Publications.
- Teaching in a Computer Lab
- Encyclopedia of Informal Education
Many different curricula exist. Curriculum may include any experience. It may also be conceived in a relationship, and it is this phenomenon that is the new paradigm view of curriculum.
In the first published textbook on “Curriculum” in 1918, John Franklin Bobbitt noted that the idea of curriculum has its roots in the Latin word for a race-course, and explained curriculum as the course of deeds and experiences in which children become the adults that they should be, for success in adult society. He explained, further, that curriculum must be understood as encompassing not only those experiences that take place within schools, but the entire scope of formative experience both within and outside of schools. Further, this includes experiences that are not planned or directed, as well as experiences that are intentionally directed (in or out of school) for the purposeful formation of adult members of society. (See image at right.)
Bobbitt saw curriculum as an arena for social engineering. His formulation suffers from at least two serious problems: 1) He assumed that "scientific" experts would be qualified and justified in designing curricula based on expert knowledge of what qualities are desirable in adult members of society, and what experiences would produce those qualities; and (2) in his definition of curriculum as the experiences that someone ought to have in order to become the kind of adult that they ought to become, he was defining curriculum as an ideal, rather than as the reality of whatever course of experience in actuality forms people as they do actually take form.
Contemporary views of curriculum would reject these features of Bobbitt's formulation, but they retain the basic notion of curriculum as the course of experience in which human being takes form. Moreover, the formation of human being through curriculum is studied not only at the level of the individual person, but also at the level of groups, cultures, and societies (as, for example, in the formation of a profession or an academic discipline through the course of its historical experience). The formation of a group is seen as taking place reciprocally with the formation of its individual participants.
Although it appeared formally in Bobbitt's definition, the notion of curriculum as the course of formative experience is also pervasive in the work of John Dewey (who seriously disagreed with Bobbitt on important issues), in Dewey's work on education spanning decades before and after Bobbitt's work. Although this understanding of "curriculum" may be different from some common uses of the word, it continues to be shared as a common understanding among curriculum professionals and researchers who take conflicting positions on a variety of other issues.
- Core curriculum
- Course catalogue (education)
- Lesson plan
- Extracurricular activity
- Description of a Career (DOAC)
- Hidden curriculum and the specific book The Hidden Curriculum
- Calvert School
- The International Bureau of Education the UNESCO centre specialized in curriculum development
- EuroCv (not for profit service)
- National Education Standards in the United States (book)
- National Education Standards...They're Back! (article)
- Diane Ravitch, National Standards in American Education A Citizen's Guide (book)
- World Council for Curriculum and Instruction
is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson. While there is no one way to construct a correct lesson plan, most lesson plans contain some or all of these elements, typically in this order:
1. the title of the lesson
2. the amount of time required to complete the lesson
3. a list of required materials
4. a list of objectives These may be stated as behavioural objectives (what the student is expected to be able to do upon completion of the lesson) or as knowledge objectives (what the student is expected to know upon completion of the lesson.
5. the set or lead-in to the lesson. This is designed to focus students on the skill or concept about to be instructed. Common sets include showing pictures or models, asking leading questions, or reviewing previously taught lessons.
6. the instructional component. This describes the sequence of events which will take place as the lesson is delivered. It includes the instructional input—what the teacher plans to do and say, and guided practice—an opportunity for students to try new skills or express new ideas with the modelling and guidance of the teacher.
7. independent practice. This component allows students to practice the skill or extend the knowledge on their own.
8. the summary. This is an opportunity for the teacher to wrap up the discussion and for the students to pose unanswered questions.
9. evaluation. Some, but not all, lessons have an evaluative component where the teacher can check for mastery of the instructed skills or concepts. This may take the form of a set of questions to be answered or a set of instructions to be followed. The evaluation may be formative; that is to say, used to guide subsequent learning, or summative; that is to say, used to determine a grade or other achievement criterion.
10. analysis. Often not part of a lesson plan, this component allows the teacher to reflect on the lesson and answer questions such as what went well, what needs improving, and how students reacted to the lesson.
11. Unit plans follow much the same format, but are intended to cover an entire unit of work, which may be delivered over several days or weeks.
In today's constructivist teaching style, the individual lesson plan is often inappropriate. Specific objectives and timelines may be included in the unit plan, but lesson plans are more fluid as they cater to student needs and learning styles. As students are asked to engage in problem or inquiry learning, rigid lesson planning with title, behavioural objectives, and specific outcomes within certain time constraints often no longer fit within modern effective pedagogy. Today, formal lesson plans are often required only of student teachers, who must be demonstrably familiar with the components of a lesson, or teachers new to the field, who have not yet internalized the flow of a lesson.
Units of work are also known as Schemes of work in the UK profession 2006.
- Learning Effectiveness
- An open knowledge management model
- Centre for Distributed Learning
- Distributed Learning Utilising On-Demand Internet-Transmitted Lectures: A Case Study
- Management Issues in Distributed Learning Content Management Systems
- Advanced Distributed Learning
- What is Distributed Learning?
- Distributed Education: Challenges, Choices and a New Environment
- Effective PowerPoint© Presentations
- Advanced Distributed Learning
Networked Learning is an activity that focuses on establishing and maintaining connections with people and information, and to collaborate in such a way so as to support one another's learning, hence - a networked learning.
Since the development of the Internet as a dominant medium for communication of information, the practice of Networked Learning has tended to focus on its use, especially since the emergence of Web 2.0.
- Wikiversity entry for Networked Learning
- National College for School Leadership
- Centre for Studies in Advanced Learning Technology
- A slide show with audio
- Networked Learning Conference Series.
- CSALT work on networked learning
- Centre for the Study of Networked Learning and Knowledge Building
- Connectivism is a pedagogical view or learning theory (depending on who you listen to) on networked learning
Blended learning is education that combines face-to-face classroom methods with computer-mediated activities. According to its proponents, the strategy creates a more integrated approach for both instructors and students.
The terms "blended," "hybrid," "technology-mediated instruction," "web-enhanced instruction," and "mixed-mode instruction" are often used interchangeably in current research literature. However, recent researchers in the United States tend to use the term "blended learning" with more regularity.
- Technology in Education
- Educational Technology Standards
- Classroom Technology
- Educational Technology Integration and Implementation
- eLearning research at the Institute of Educational Technology
- Future Trends in Educational Technology
Educational Technology is the systematic and creative blending of "idea" and "product" technologies with subject-matter content in order to engender and improve teaching and learning processes. Educational technology is often associated with the terms instructional technology or learning technology. "Product" technologies are tangible; for example, computer hardware or software. "Idea" technologies are cognitive frameworks or schemes; for example, the theory of Multiple Intelligence Theory proposed by Howard Gardner. When products are thoughtfully blended with subject matter content (such as mathematics or science concepts) for a specific audience in a specific educational context (such as a school), one is using "educational technology."
The words educational and technology in the term educational technology have the general meaning. Educational technology is not restricted to the education of children, nor to the use of high technology. The particular case of the meaningful use of high-technology to enhance learning in K-12 classrooms and higher education is known as technology integration. Several universities have recently opened tracks for graduate programs in the field of Educational Technology.
6-month subscriptions and updates available for individuals, organisations and institutions, their students, faculty members, teachers, instructors, trainers, researches and business/management scholars throughout the world.
Teaching Career Guides
In education, Teachers are those who help students or pupils learn, often in a school. The objective is typically a course of study, lesson plan, or a practical skill, including learning and thinking skills. The different ways to teach are often referred to as the teacher's pedagogy. When deciding what teaching method to use, a teacher will need to consider students' background knowledge, environment, and their learning goals as well as standardized curricula as determined by the relevant authority. The teacher should also be able to deal with students with different abilities and should also be able to deal with leaning disabilities. Many times, teachers assist in learning outside of the classroom by accompanying students on field trips. They also supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, and serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities.
Teaching may occur face-to-face or via some other modality, e.g. through distance education or e-learning. Teaching can also be mixed with entertainment. When the term education is combined with entertainment, the term edutainment is coined.
- Related positions
- Qualification and registration
- Teaching as a profession
- World Teachers’ Day
- Adult education
- Alternative education
- Classical education
- Comparative education
- Educational philosophies
- Educational technology
- Gifted education
- Glossary of education-related terms
- History of education
- Learning by teaching
- List of educators
- Medical education
- Public education
- Special education
- Teacher Education
- Tertiary education
- Vocational education
Teacher Education refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the school and classroom.
Teacher education is often divided into:
- initial teacher training / education (a pre-service course before entering the classroom as a fully responsible teacher);
- induction (the process of providing training and support during the first few years of teaching or the first year in a particular school);
- teacher development or continuing professional development (CPD) (an in-service process for practicing teachers).
The process of mentoring is also relevant.
In professional education Learning by Teaching designates a method which centres on student voice, allowing pupils and students to prepare and teach lessons or parts of lessons. Learning by teaching should not be confused with presentations or lectures by students, as students do not only convey a certain content, but choose their own methodological and didactical approach in teaching their classmates a certain area of the respective subject. It should neither be confused with Tutoring or peer-teaching, because of the intensive control and supporting of the learning-process through the teacher by learning by teaching in contrast to the other methods.
- Learning by teaching by Martin (LdL)
- Learning by teaching outside the LdL-context
Teaching and Learning Models
- Programme Evaluation
- Assessing Student Performance
- Assignment Evaluation Sheets
- Assessment Online
There are two common purposes in educational evaluation which are, at times, in conflict with one another. Educational institutions usually require evaluation data to demonstrate effectiveness to funders and other stakeholders, and to provide a measure of performance for marketing purposes. Educational evaluation is also a professional activity that individual educators need to undertake if they intend to continuously review and enhance the learning they are endeavouring to facilitate.
- Standards for educational evaluation
- Alternative assessment
- Competency evaluation
- Course evaluation
- Criterion-referenced test
- Evaluation methods and techniques
- Norm-referenced test
- Performance evaluation
- Program evaluation
- Standardized testing
- Standardized testing and public policy
- Wikiversity: Educational standards organisations
- Notes and references
- American Evaluation Association
- American Educational Research Association
- Assessment in Higher Education
- Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation
is the process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs. This article covers educational assessment including the work of institutional researchers, but the term applies to other fields as well including health and finance.
- Standards of quality
- Notes and references
- Course evaluation is a series of questions given students to evaluate the instruction of a given course.
- Evaluation is the process of looking at what is being assessed to make sure the right areas are being considered.
- Grading is the process of assigning a (possibly mutually exclusive) ranking to learners.
- Educational measurement
- Educational evaluation
- Educational psychology
- Electronic portfolio
- Health Impact Assessment looks at the potential health impacts of policies, programs and projects.
- Program evaluation is essentially a set of philosophies and techniques to determine if a program 'works'.
- Social Impact Assessment
- Standardized testing is any test that is used across a variety of schools or other situations.
- Science, Technology, Society and Environment Education
Formative assessment is a self-reflective process that intends to promote student attainment . Cowie and Bell  define it as the bidirectional process between teacher and student to enhance, recognise and respond to the learning. Black and Wiliam  consider an assessment ‘formative’ when the feedback from learning activities is actually used to adapt the teaching to meet the learner's needs.
Summative assessment refers to the assessment of the learning and summarises the development of learners at a particular time. After a period of work, e.g. a Unit for two weeks, the learner would sit a test and then the teacher would mark the test and assign a score. This test would summarise learning up to that point. The test may also be used for diagnostic assessment to identify any weaknesses and then build on that using formative assessment.
- Assessment in Higher Education web site.
- Edutopia: Assessment Overview A collection of media and articles on the topic of assessment from The George Lucas Educational Foundation
- The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing
- Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation
- Testing and Assessment Glossary of Terms
- Assessing Training Needs
Performance-based Assessment- requires students to construct a more extensive and elaborate answer or response. A well-defined task is identified and students are asked to create, produce, or do something, often in settings that involve real-world application of knowledge and skills. Proficiency is demonstrated by providing an extended response. Performance formats are further differentiated into products and performances. The performance may result in a product, such as a painting, portfolio, paper, or exhibition, or it may consist of a performance, such as a speech, athletic skill, musical recital, or reading. (Be aware that many use the term performance assessment to refer to both performances and products, and others use performance-based.)
Broad examples include performances, portfolios, and projects.
Performance-based Assessment is often aligned with the troubled standards-based education reform and outcomes-based education movement. Though ideally they are significantly different from a traditional multiple choice test, they are most commonly associated with standards-based assessment which use free-form responses to standard questions scored by human scorers on a standards-based scale, meeting, falling below, or exceeding a performance standard rather than being ranked on a curve. Such tests have proved problematic in that they are often designed to produce very high failure rates, well over 50%, or as high as 90% for some minority groups, as compared to traditional letter grades in which typically only a few students are given a failing "E" or "F", or students are ranked, with no set failing cut-score. They have also been used as high school graduation examinations, with the cost of failure being forfeiting the high school diploma on the basis of a test with largely the same rank-ordering as IQ tests.
Page Ltd 01 March, 1999 Paperback
Check the availability and buy your books from our Bookshop.
Technology for Teaching and Learning
Timothy Newby, Donald Stepich, James Lehman, James Russell
2005, Paperback, 360 pages
Check the availability and buy your books from our Bookshop.
Learning and Teaching in Higher Education
Check the availability and buy your books from our Bookshop.
- A Few Good Learning Theories
- Assessing Learning in Australian Universities
- Citizenship Education
- Evaluation of Information Sources
- How do you become a teacher?
- Teaching Methods
- Trends in Global Higher Education Update
Learning in Action
- A Few Good Learning Theories
- Basic Requirements of Learners in Training and Development
- Blended Learning: Choosing the Right Blend?
- Bottom Line
- China: Education Overview
- China's Institutions of Higher Learning
- Communities of Practice
- Concepts and Skills
- Current Trends in Higher Education Development in China
- Departmentation (Grouping)
- Education in Australia
- Education in Egypt
- Education in Europe
- Education in Hong Kong
- Education in India
- Education in Malaysia
- Education in People's Republic of China
- Evaluation Information Sources
- How to Improve Teaching Quality
- Influences From Outside and Within
- Knowledge Management and E-learning
- Learning and Career Management Skills
- Modes of Personal and Organisational Learning in Virtual BusinessTeams
- Myths and Realities of e-Learning
- Organisational Culture
- Reflections On eLearning
- Structure in Fives: Designing Effective Organization
- Three Views of e-Learning
- Web-based Education Commission
- What Should Be Taught Via the Web?
- World Education 1
- World Education 2
- A New Model of Information System
- Conceptual and Dynamic Modelling of the Project Management for Development of Courseware Systems for Distance Learning Programs
- E-learning and E-books
- E-learning Pros and Cons
- Examination of E-learning and E-books
- Growth of e-Learning
- Impact of Online Teaching on Traditional Education
- Learning best practice behaviours through multimedia simulators
- Mental Models and Network Pedagogy
- NCEC - Network-Training Collaboration in Europe and China: Developing the Infrastructure
- Utilization of Learning Material Resource Databases over the Web
Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental goals the imparting of culture from generation to generation (see socialization). Education is 'to draw out'. This means facilitating realisation of self-potential and latent talents of an individual.
The education of an individual human begins at birth and continues throughout life. (Some believe that education begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents' playing music or reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the child's development.) For some, the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide far more instruction than does formal schooling (thus Albert Einstein's admonition to "never let school interfere with your education"). Family members may have a profound educational effect — often more profound than they realize — though family teaching may function very informally.
- Other Course Management Systems
- Blackboard's web page discussing patents, including a FAQ
- Online Learning History
- Blackboard vs. Moodle. A Comparison of Satisfaction with Online Teaching and Learning Tools
- Comparison of Blackboard and Sakai systems from Virginia Tech (pdf)
- Comparison of Blackboard and LON-CAPA from edutools.info