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Global Marketing Management
The Oxford University Press defines global marketing as “marketing on a worldwide scale reconciling or taking commercial advantage of global operational differences, similarities and opportunities in order to meet global objectives.” Oxford University Press’ Glossary of Marketing Terms.
Here are three reasons for the shift from domestic to global marketing as given by the authors of the textbook, Global Marketing Management—3rd Edition by Masaaki Kotabe and Kristiaan Helsen, 2004.
 Global Marketing Network is the worldwide membership association for marketing and business professionals. With Ashcroft International Business School at Anglia Ruskin University it offers a full validated UK Masters leading to an MSc Global Marketing Practice, designed to raise standards in marketing practice worldwide. More information at 
www.wfanet.org World Federation of Advertisers
Given the rapid internationalisation of business activities, understanding of Global Marketing is becoming a requirement for a marketing or general management career. This ten-week course is designed to introduce students to the theory, nature and practice of marketing and consumer behaviour. It addresses international marketing challenges facing companies involved in foreign activities (exports, licensing, foreign subsidiaries).
The course focuses on the management response to parameters, which differ from those in domestic marketing. The themes discussed during the course include international marketing environment, international marketing research, selection of international markets, international product policy, selection and management of international distribution partners, price discrimination/harmonisation, international communications, strategic planning and organising for international marketing, and entrepreneurial opportunities in international markets including e-commerce.
The main objective of the course is to introduce the nature and basic concepts of marketing in a global context. The role and importance of marketing in modern business organisations will be discussed. The essential elements of marketing mix as well as their relevance and importance in defining business strategies are emphasised. In more specific term, the course aims
- To provide understanding of the external factors that are shaping the marketing manager's activities in the global economy
- To identify the mechanisms for creating and sustaining customer values in international markets
- To develop a critical appreciation of the development and implementation of marketing strategies and programmes in international contexts
- To provide understanding of the organisation of international marketing operations
After completing this course, students should be able:
- To understanding of models of culture.
- To understanding of models of comparative consumer behaviour
- To understanding of regional effects on marketing
- To understanding of psychology of persuasion
- Have ability to apply theories of culture and persuasion to the development of international marketing strategies
- To understand the marketing process and its underlying concepts;
- To have sufficient knowledge of the elements of the marketing mix which is incorporated in the firms business strategy;
- To appreciate the role of essential environmental and organisational factors in the development of a marketing plan.
- To apply both managerial judgement and analytical approaches to marketing problems.
- Marketing in the 21st Century
- Why go International?
- Scope and Challenges of International Marketing
- Developing Global Vision (ppt)
- Global Vision (ppt)
- Global Marketing (ppt)
- Global Marketing Management (ppt)
- Organising for international marketing
- The Environment of Global Trade
- Economic Environment
- Financial Environment
- Political Environment
- Social and Cultural Environments
- The Changing Marketing Environment
- Managing in Global Environment
One of the fundamental steps that needs to be taken prior to beginning international marketing is the environmental analysis. Of course there are many tools on Marketing Teacher that would prove useful at this stage such as lessons on the marketing environment, PEST Analysis, SWOT Analysis, POWER SWOT and Five Forces Analysis. However, the very specific and unique nature of each individual nation needs to be looked into. Below we consider the nature of an international PEST Analysis, and the influence of tariff and non-tariff barriers.
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Market research is any organized effort to gather information about markets or customers. It is a very important component of business strategy. The term is commonly interchanged with marketing research; however, expert practitioners may wish to draw a distinction, in that marketing research is concerned specifically about marketing processes, while market research is concerned specifically with markets.
Market Research is the key factor to get advantage over competitors. Market research provides important information to identify and analyse the market need, market size and competition.
Market research,as defined by the ICC/ESOMAR International Code on Market and Social Research, includes social and opinion research, [and] is the systematic gathering and interpretation of information about individuals or organizations using statistical and analytical methods and techniques of the applied social sciences to gain insight or support decision making.
Marketing research is the systematic gathering, recording, and analysis of data about issues relating to marketing products and services. The goal of marketing research is to identify and assess how changing elements of the marketing mix impacts customer behaviour The term is commonly interchanged with market research; however, expert practitioners may wish to draw a distinction, in that market research is concerned specifically with markets, while marketing research is concerned specifically about marketing processes.
Marketing research is often partitioned into two sets of categorical pairs, either by target market:
- Consumer marketing research, and
- Business-to-business (B2B) marketing research
Or, alternatively, by methodological approach:
- Qualitative marketing research, and
- Quantitative marketing research
Consumer marketing research is a form of applied sociology that concentrates on understanding the preferences, attitudes, and behaviours of consumers in a market-based economy, and it aims to understand the effects and comparative success of marketing campaigns. The field of consumer marketing research as a statistical science was pioneered by Arthur Nielsen with the founding of the ACNielsen Company in 1923.
Thus, marketing research may also be described as the systematic and objective identification, collection, analysis, and dissemination of information for the purpose of assisting management in decision making related to the identification and solution of problems and opportunities in marketing.
- Role of marketing research (MR)
- Marketing research characteristics
- Comparison with other forms of business research
- Classification of marketing research
- Types of marketing research
- Marketing research methods
- Business to business market research
- Marketing research in small businesses and nonprofit organizations
- International Marketing Research plan
- Commonly used marketing research terms
- Selecting a research supplier
- Careers in marketing research
A Market analysis is a documented investigation of a market that is used to inform a firm's planning activities particularly around decisions of inventory, purchase, work force expansion/contraction, facility expansion, purchases of capital equipment, promotional activities, and many other aspects of a company.
- Business Strategy
- Global Marketing
- Global Marketing Management
- Strategic Global Market Management
- Competing in the Global Market
- Global Market Entry Strategies
- International Marketing Control
Marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. A marketing strategy should be centred around the key concept that customer satisfaction is the main goal.
- Key part of the general corporate strategy
- Tactics and actions
- Types of strategies
- Strategic models
- Real-life marketing
Competitive advantage is defined as the strategic advantage one business entity has over its rival entities within its competitive industry. Achieving Competitive Advantage strengthens and positions a business better within the business environment.
- Resource-based view
- Further reading
International marketing (IM) or global marketing refers to marketing carried out by companies overseas or across national borderlines. This strategy uses an extension of the techniques used in the home country of a firm. It refers to the firm-level marketing practices across the border including market identification and targeting, entry mode selection, marketing mix, and strategic decisions to compete in international markets. According to the American Marketing Association (AMA) "international marketing is the multinational process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organisational objectives." In contrast to the definition of marketing only the word multinational has been added. In simple words international marketing is the application of marketing principles to across national boundaries. However, there is a crossover between what is commonly expressed as international marketing and global marketing, which is a similar term.
The intersection is the result of the process of internationalization. Many American and European authors see international marketing as a simple extension of exporting, whereby the marketing mix 4P's is simply adapted in some way to take into account differences in consumers and segments. It then follows that global marketing takes a more standardised approach to world markets and focuses upon sameness, in other words the similarities in consumers and segments.
- Further definitions
- Topics covering the micro-context of international marketing
- Differences between domestic marketing and international marketing
- Mode of engagement in foreign markets
Strategy - Portfolio Analysis - GE Matrix
The business portfolio is the collection of businesses and products that make up the company. The best business portfolio is one that fits the company's strengths and helps exploit the most attractive opportunities.
The company must:
(1) Analyse its current business portfolio and decide which businesses should receive more or less investment, and
(2) Develop growth strategies for adding new products and businesses to the portfolio, whilst at the same time deciding when products and businesses should no longer be retained.
The two best-known portfolio planning methods are the Boston Consulting Group Portfolio Matrix and the McKinsey / General Electric Matrix (discussed in this revision note). In both methods, the first step is to identify the various Strategic Business Units ("SBU's") in a company portfolio. An SBU is a unit of the company that has a separate mission and objectives and that can be planned independently from the other businesses. An SBU can be a company division, a product line or even individual brands - it all depends on how the company is organised.
The McKinsey/GE Matrix overcomes a number of the disadvantages of the BCG Box. Firstly, market attractiveness replaces market growth as the dimension of industry attractiveness, and includes a broader range of factors other than just the market growth rate. Secondly, competitive strength replaces market share as the dimension by which the competitive position of each SBU is assessed.
The diagram below illustrates some of the possible elements that determine market attractiveness and competitive strength by applying the McKinsey/GE Matrix to the UK retailing market:
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The noun product is defined as a "thing produced by labour or effort" or the "result of an act or a process", and stems from the verb produce, from the Latin prōdūce(re) '(to) lead or bring forth'. Since 1575, the word "product" has referred to anything produced. Since 1695, the word has referred to "thing or things produced". The economic or commercial meaning of product was first used by political economist Adam Smith.
In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. In retailing, products are called merchandise. In manufacturing, products are purchased as raw materials and sold as finished goods. Commodities are usually raw materials such as metals and agricultural products, but a commodity can also be anything widely available in the open market. In project management, products are the formal definition of the project deliverances that make up or contribute to delivering the objectives of the project.
In general, product may refer to a single item or unit, a group of equivalent products, a grouping of goods or services, or an industrial classification for the goods or services.
A related concept is subproduct, a secondary but useful result of a production process.
Dangerous products, particularly physical ones, that cause injuries to consumers or bystanders may be subject to product liability.
- International Communications
- Global Promotion Strategies
Promotion is one of the four elements of marketing mix (product, price, promotion, distribution). It is the communication link between sellers and buyers for the purpose of influencing, informing, or persuading a potential buyer's purchasing decision.
The following are two types of Promotion:
Above the line promotion: Promotion in the media (e.g. TV, radio, newspapers, Internet, Mobile Phones, and, historically, illustrated songs) in which the advertiser pays an advertising agency to place the ad
Below the line promotion: All other promotion. Much of this is intended to be subtle enough for the consumer to be unaware that promotion is taking place. E.g. sponsorship, product placement, endorsements, sales promotion, merchandising, direct mail, personal selling, public relations, trade shows
Case Study: Construction of a Global Promotion Structure
The specification of five elements creates a promotional mix or promotional plan. These elements are personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing, and publicity. A promotional mix specifies how much attention to pay to each of the five subcategories, and how much money to budget for each. A promotional plan can have a wide range of objectives, including: sales increases, new product acceptance, creation of brand equity, positioning, competitive retaliations, or creation of a corporate image. Fundamentally, however there are three basic objectives of promotion. These are: 1.) To present information to consumers as well as others 2.)To increase demand 3.)To differentiate a product.
There are different ways to promote a product in different areas of media. Promoters use internet advertisement, special events, endorsements, and newspapers to advertise their product. Many times with the purchase of a product there is an incentive like discounts, free items, or a contest. This is to increase the sales of a given product.
The term "promotion" is usually an "in" expression used internally by the marketing company, but not normally to the public or the market - phrases like "special offer" are more common. An example of a fully integrated, long-term, large-scale promotion are My Coke Rewards and Pepsi Stuff. The UK version of My Coke Rewards is Coke Zone.
Pricing is the process of determining what a company will receive in exchange for its products. Pricing factors are manufacturing cost, market place, competition, market condition, and quality of product. Pricing is also a key variable in microeconomic price allocation theory. Pricing is a fundamental aspect of financial modelling and is one of the four Ps of the marketing mix. The other three aspects are product, promotion, and place. Price is the only revenue generating element amongst the four Ps, the rest being cost centres.
Pricing is the manual or automatic process of applying prices to purchase and sales orders, based on factors such as: a fixed amount, quantity break, promotion or sales campaign, specific vendor quote, price prevailing on entry, shipment or invoice date, combination of multiple orders or lines, and many others. Automated systems require more setup and maintenance but may prevent pricing errors. The needs of the consumer can be converted into demand only if the consumer has the willingness and capacity to buy the product. Thus pricing is very important in marketing.
An organisational structure consists of activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, which are directed towards the achievement of organisational aims. It can also be considered as the viewing glass or perspective through which individuals see their organization and its environment.
Many organizations have hierarchical structures, but not all.
An organization can be structured in many different ways, depending on their objectives. The structure of an organization will determine the modes in which it operates and performs.
Organisational structure affects organisational action in two big ways. First, it provides the foundation on which standard operating procedures and routines rest. Second, it determines which individuals get to participate in which decision-making processes, and thus to what extent their views shape the organization’s actions.
- Operational organizations and informal organizations
- Cross-functional team
- Group development
- Management consulting
- Organization development
- Organisational culture
- Parent company
- Team building
- Value network
Business ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and business organizations as a whole. Applied ethics is a field of ethics that deals with ethical questions in many fields such as medical, technical, legal and business ethics.
Business ethics can be both a normative and a descriptive discipline. As a corporate practice and a career specialization, the field is primarily normative. In academia descriptive approaches are also taken. The range and quantity of business ethical issues reflects the degree to which business is perceived to be at odds with non-economic social values. Historically, interest in business ethics accelerated dramatically during the 1980s and 1990s, both within major corporations and within academia. For example, today most major corporate websites lay emphasis on commitment to promoting non-economic social values under a variety of headings such as ethics codes and social responsibility charters. In some cases, corporations have redefined their core values in the light of business ethical considerations, for example, BP's "beyond petroleum" environmental tilt.
- Why business ethics?
- Individual Ethical Decision-Making Styles
- History of ethics in business
- Overview of issues in business ethics
- General business ethics
- International business ethics and ethics of economic systems
- Business ethics in the field
- Business ethics as an academic discipline
- Religious views on business ethics
- Related disciplines
- Differing opinions regarding business ethics
Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by private persons or corporations not directly involved with the government. An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if the act is directly related to their official duties.
|World map of the 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, which measures "the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians". High numbers (blue) indicate less perception of corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate higher perception of corruption.|
Forms of corruption vary, but include bribery, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, patronage, graft, and embezzlement. While corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise such as drug trafficking, money laundering, and human trafficking, it is not restricted to these activities.
The activities that constitute illegal corruption differ depending on the country or jurisdiction. For instance, certain political funding practices that are legal in one place may be illegal in another. In some cases, government officials have broad or poorly defined powers, which make it difficult to distinguish between legal and illegal actions. Worldwide, bribery alone is estimated to involve over 1 trillion US dollars annually. A state of unrestrained political corruption is known as a kleptocracy, literally meaning "rule by thieves".
- Conditions favourable for corruption
- Governmental corruption
- Fighting corruption
- Campaign contributions
- Measuring corruption
On Tackling Corruption: A Non-Economist's View by Alum Bati
Global Integrity Report – local reporting and scorecards on anti-corruption performance in 90+ countries
United Nations Convention against Corruption at Law-Ref.org – fully indexed and crosslinked with other documents
PolicyPitch seeks to hold politicians accountable for their actions by providing more transparency. It allows people to track and comment on local legislation, contact politicians, and propose your own policies.
Money and Politics - Political Finance & Public Ethics – links to news articles, resources and handbooks on political corruption, political finance and campaign finance issues around the world
World Bank's Worldwide Governance Indicators Worldwide ratings of country performances on six governance dimensions from 1996 to present.
Corruption Literature Review World Bank Literature Review.
Corruption Perceptions Index 2009 Map Source Transparency International
SamuelGriffith.org.au, McGrath, Amy. Chapter Seven “One Vote, One Value: Electoral Fraud in Australia”. Proceedings of the Eighth Conference of The Samuel Griffith Society.
National Seminar on political corruption in India. 20–21 January 2011.
Marketing Management, Third
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Marketing : A Global Managerial Approach, 14/e
William D. Perreault
E. Jerome McCarthy
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7ed. Keegan, Warren J.
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